During a printed circuit board test (PCB test), PCBs are checked for production faults and correct functioning during or after their assembly. Electrical PCB tests include:
- Physical testing (e. g. in circuit tests – ICT – or flying probe tests – FPT) during or after the assembly; PCB components are inspected for physical features (for example detection of faulty soldering by measuring electrical resistances or capacitances).
- During functional testing (FCT), PCBs are checked for correct functioning in context of their intended application. In contrast to ICT/FPT, functional testing can be performed no earlier than at the end of the manufacturing line of a functional unit (for example during an end of line test).
Besides electrical PCB testing, there are optical PCB tests. Printed circuit boards are photographed or X-rayed. Then, automated image processing software identifies production faults.